RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS FOR THE YEAR 2013-14
Nine rice varieties were developed by CRRI during the year. The list included CR Dhan 300, CR Dhan 303, CR Dhan 304 and CR Dhan 305 for irrigated ecosystem; CR Dhan 201, CR Dhan 202 and CR Dhan 204 for aerobic ecosystem; CR Dhan 407 for rainfed shallow lowland and CR Dhan 505 for deepwater ecosystem. These were released and notified by CVRC in 68th CVRC notification. Another two varieties, CR Dhan 306 for irrigated ecology and CR Dhan 205 for aerobic condition have been identified for release by VIC in the 49th Rice Research Group Meeting.
Improved lines from the cross Naveen and ARC10075 were developed with more than 12% grain protein content (GPC) as compared to Naveen (9%), which have been entered in AICRIP trial. Besides, introgression lines in Swarna background were identified with 11-13% GPC.
CRRI rice variety Heera released in 1989 with very high per day productivity was identified to be high protein rice with 12% protein in brown rice and 10-10.5% in milled rice grains.
Despite severe damage caused by cyclonic storm Phailin, 295 quintals of breeder seed of 30 CRRI rice varieties were produced in kharif 2013.
Chlorophyll-a fluorescence based technique to screen for salinity tolerance was standardized. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameter and performance index not only distinguished between tolerant and susceptible genotypes but also could separate out best tolerant genotypes from the others.
Sahabhagidhan, Brahman-Nakhi, Naveen, Mahulata and Vandana had high yield potential under drought condition.
Breeding lines CR 3006-8-2 and CR 2711-149, developed in the background of Pusa 44 and Tapaswini with incorporation of BPH resistance from donors Salkathi and Dhobanumberi, respectively, were highly resistant against BPH in multi-locational testing of AICRIP. CR3006-8-2 was recommended for registration with NBPGR, New Delhi for showing consistency in resistance against BPH.
Dual cropping of Azolla helped to increase the spider population (11spiders/sweep) compared to control (5 spiders/sweep). Dead heart and white ear head in the plot with Azolla were 15.5% and 9.5% while the control plot recorded 24.9% and 12.6 % respectively.
The strains of Endophytic fungi (NCBI Accession No.KC832507) could completely check the growth of pathogenic Rhizoctonia oryzae sativae. Sclerotia production was significantly reduced (90% reduction).
Trichoderma viride and the fungicide Azoxystrobin 25 SC were found to reduce sheath blight disease incidence by 54%.
The socio-economic approaches and mechanisms for sustainable rice production in gender perspective brought out that farmwomen contributed 67.03% of the total hours in rice production as against 25.04% by men of a family.
Transfer of rice production technology was carried out through trainers’ training programmes (19), participation in exhibitions (11), popular publications (23), visitors' advisory services (4650) and observation of special days viz., Institute Foundation Day, Women in Agriculture Day, Industry Day, Agriculture Education Day, East Zone Regional Agriculture Fair and ICAR-SAU-State Departments Interface.
Effective monitoring of BGREI programme had been conducted through state level monitoring team and district level monitoring team in the Eastern states, that has led to successful implementation of this centrally sponsored scheme.
RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS FOR THE YEAR 2012-13
During the year 2012-13, thirteen rice varieties were released and notified for commercial cultivation in different rice ecologies. Besides, seven new varieties have been identified by Variety Identification Committee, which are suitable for aerobic, deepwater, irrigated and rainfed shallow lowlands in the country.
For breaking yield plateau in shallow low land ecology "New Generation Rice (NGR)" recombinants with yield potential upto 14 t/ha have been identified.
For climate resilience, nine genes for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance have been successfully pyramided in the background of rice variety Tapaswini.
CRRI produced 800 quintals of breeder seed and 400 quintals of truthfully labelled seed for further multiplication/commercial cultivation of varieties released earlier by the institute.
The institute, as the National Active Germplasm Site for rice, multiplied and supplied 2525 germplasm lines during the year to other institutions in the country for research purpose.
A unique rice line tested across 11 locations over 3 years in the country has been found to possess wide climatic adaptability. Another rice genotype with tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses namely, anaerobic germination, water logging and salinity has also been identified. These lines will be useful as donors of wider adaptation and multiple stress tolerance in rice variety development programme.
Application of FYM and green manuring enhanced total antioxidant capacity, gamma-oryzanol, phenolics, protein and oil contents in rice grain that highlights usefulness of organic manures.
Leaf colour chart (LCC) based nitrogen management technology for rice grown under different ecosystems was standardized and commercialized to enhance nitrogen use efficiency and reduce production costs.
Rice husk combustor of 2-3 KW capacity was designed, fabricated and tested. Its thermal efficiency was found to be 12%.
Among different rice-based cropping systems evaluated in irrigated ecology, rice-maize-cowpea was found most economical.
Based on 39 years data in rice-rice cropping systems, the annual greenhouse gas emissions from tropical rice were moderate per unit grain yield under combined application of FYM + NPK which is a viable option in managing soil fertility and sustaining rice yield.
In wet direct sown rice, Flucetosulfuron, a new post-emergence sulfonylurea herbicide showed excellent control of predominant grassy weeds, sedges and annual broadleaf weeds with weed control efficiency of 90%.
In context of climate change, green leaf hopper (GLH) population has been recorded to be declining over the years (2001 to 2011). Delayed onset of winter appears to be the major climatic factor. In contrast, false smut was observed emerging as a major disease of rice during kharif season.
In aerobic rice, small grass hopper (Oxya velox) is found to be an important pest followed by semilooper.
In IPM validation trial, a yield advantage of 1.3 t/ha has been recorded over non-IPM fields in variety Pooja, revealing the significance of integrated pest management in rice.
For pest monitoring using e-pest-surveillance, rice pests of Maharashtra state were monitored, advisory on IPM strategies provided and over 180 agriculture officers of Mahrashtra Government trained.
The demonstration of newly released CRRI rice varieties conducted in model village revealed that Sahabhagidhan is most suitable for rainfed upland situation.
During the year 2012-13, 4392 farmers/farmwomen, students and scientists visited the institute and were exposed to our technology.
The institute organized seven trainer's trainings and published 11 bulletins for dissemination of rice production technologies.
An International Symposium on "Sustainable Rice Production and Livelihood Security: Challenges and Opportunities" was organized in which, more than 300 national and international delegates participated.