Crop Physiology and Biochemistry Division
The research focus of the Division of Crop Physiology and Biochemistry is on rice grain and nutritional quality improvement and in developing abiotic stress (multiple and individual) tolerant rice varieties by screening and evaluation of available germplasm for the desired traits. Priority is on developing high protein and micronutrient (iron and zinc) rich rice, specialty rice (soak n eat, low glycemic index rice, pigmented rice and suitable rice cultivars for value addition).Likewise, priority in physiology is on rice metabolism under submergence, drought, salinity and or high temperature stress. Investigating photosynthesis under low light and enhancing it through genetic manipulation are other thrust areas.
Research in the Division has resulted in developing a rapid and nondestructive chlorophyll fluorescence based screening technique for submergence tolerance, a rapid chlorophyll estimation procedure, identification and registration of several drought / submergence /salinity tolerant lines and their exploitation in developing abiotic stress tolerant varieties .The line AC39416 was found tolerant to anaerobic germination, stagnant water flooding, drought and salinity, while Kalaputia was tolerant to submergence, stagnant water flooding, and drought. . For reproductive stage drought stress, BVD-109, Kalakeri , IC 416249 and CR 143-2-2 (1.90) were identified as promising genotypes.The greater accumulation of chlorophyll b and lower chlorophyll a/b ratio in some hybrids under helped them adapt to low light intensity The technology for extending shelf life of brown rice, identification of high protein rice with transfer of the trait into HYVs Naveen and Swarna, identification of soak n eat rice are other achievements. Present emphasis is also on low glycemic index rice, pigmented rice, rice suitable for processed products short grain aromatic rice and organic rice.
The Division has facility for evaluating rice grain and nutritional quality, genetic manipulation, screening for abiotic stress (drought, submergence, salinity, high temperature and low light stress) and for studying physiology and biochemistry of plants under stress. Physiological mechanisms conferring to reproductive stage salinity tolerance is a new initiative. The Division has trained several students/staff on rice grain and nutritional quality, abiotic stress tolerance and genetic manipulation for Master's and Doctoral degrees. Success Story: Dry season rice and non-rice crops technology Due to intervention by the divisional scientists, the Dry season rice area in nine villages of Ersama block of Jagatsinghpur District, Orissa increased by 125-407% in 2007 compared to 2006 with adoption of modern varieties and CNRM practices. Non -rice crops like water melon, chilli, groundnut, okra finger and sunflower have been accepted and are being cultivated in dry season. In 2004, about 90% land in these villages remained fallow. The Division has trained several students/staff on rice grain and nutritional quality, abiotic stress tolerance and genetic manipulation for Master's and Doctoral degrees. Contact: Dr S G Sharma, Head Division of Crop Physiology and Biochemistry (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ongoing research projects
1. Ploidy regulated expression of genes involved in mega gametophyte development, apomixes and its component treats (DST)
2. National Initiative of Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)
3. Stress Tolerant Rice for Africa and South Asia (STRASA): Drought
4. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA): Phenomics of moisture deficit and low temperature stress tolerance in rice
5. Using wild ancestor plants to make rice more resilient to increasingly unpredictable water availability (SCPRID)
6. Rice grain and nutritional quality(Institute project)